The GNU Project is an attempt to develop
a complete free and open source
operating system, as well as a suite of useful programs, initiated by
Free Software Foundation.
and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) were originally developed for the GNU Project,
although, they are also now used for many other projects too.
The GNU Project includes
the bash shell,
GNU Binary Utilities (binutils),
the GNU C Library (glibc)
the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC),
and the GNU Core Utilities (core).
Additionally, an operating system kernel,
known as GNU Hurd is under development,
but since it is not yet finished,
most GNU users use the programs with
Versions of many of the GNU utilities are
also available for other operating systems including
Mac OS X,
The majority (but not all) the copyrights in the GNU project are held by the
Free Software Foundation,
and as already mentioned, most parts of the project are
distributed under the
licenses, although some other
are used for some parts of the project.
Here are some books about GNU:
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Product Description: For GNU Make Version 4.1 The Make program is indispensable to maintainers of free software systems. The GNU Make manual, written by the program's original authors, is the definitive tutorial. It also includes an introductory chapter for novice users. The Make utility automates the process of compilation; it is especially useful when the source files of large programs change. It is a small program with a lot of power. This book will show you:
How to write your own makefiles
Make's rule syntax and how to write your own rules
How the Make utility can be configured to automatically put binary and source files in the right places.
How to use make to create archive files automatically
Define, set and use Make's variables
How Make uses targets so that you can broaden or narrow Make's recompilation efforts on demand.
And much more!
This manual provides a complete explanation of Make, both the basics and extended features. There is also a convenient Quick Reference appendix for experts.
An annotated guide to program and develop GNU/Linux Embedded systems quickly
About This Book
Rapidly design and build powerful prototypes for GNU/Linux Embedded systems
Become familiar with the workings of GNU/Linux Embedded systems and how to manage its peripherals
Write, monitor, and configure applications quickly and effectively, manage an external micro-controller, and use it as co-processor for real-time tasks
Who This Book Is For
This book targets Embedded System developers and GNU/Linux programmers who would like to program Embedded Systems and perform Embedded development. The book focuses on quick and efficient prototype building. Some experience with hardware and Embedded Systems is assumed, as is having done some previous work on GNU/Linux systems. Knowledge of scripting on GNU/Linux is expected as well.
What You Will Learn
Use embedded systems to implement your projects
Access and manage peripherals for embedded systems
Program embedded systems using languages such as C, Python, Bash, and PHP
Use a complete distribution, such as Debian or Ubuntu, or an embedded one, such as OpenWrt or Yocto
Harness device driver capabilities to optimize device communications
Access data through several kinds of devices such as GPIO's, serial ports, PWM, ADC, Ethernet, WiFi, audio, video, I2C, SPI, One Wire, USB and CAN
Practical example usage of several devices such as RFID readers, Smart card readers, barcode readers, z-Wave devices, GSM/GPRS modems
Usage of several sensors such as light, pressure, moisture, temperature, infrared, power, motion
GNU make is the most widely used build automation tool, but it can be challenging to master and its terse language can be tough to parse for even experienced programmers. Those who run into difficulties face a long, involved struggle, often leaving unsolved problems behind and GNU make's vast potential untapped.
The GNU Make Book demystifies GNU make and shows you how to use its best features. You'll find a fast, thorough rundown of the basics of variables, rules, targets, and makefiles. Learn how to fix wastefully long build times and other common problems, and gain insight into more advanced capabilities, such as complex pattern rules. With this utterly pragmatic manual and cookbook, you'll make rapid progress toward becoming a more effective user.
You'll also learn how to:
Master user-defined functions, variables, and path handling
Weigh the pitfalls and advantages of GNU make parallelization
Handle automatic dependency generation, rebuilding, and non-recursive make
Modify the GNU make source and take advantage of the GNU Make Standard Library
Create makefile assertions and debug makefiles
GNU make is known for being tricky to use, but it doesn't have to be. If you're looking for a deeper understanding of this indispensable tool, you'll find The GNU Make Book to be an indispensable guide.
Product Description: This is the second edition of the book titled, GNU OCTAVE FOR BEGINNERS. A number of enhancements have been made: some of the subjects are explained in more details, additional sections are added, and exercise problems and answers are added along with the programs used to answer the problems. The total number of pages are nearly 40% increased.
Product Description: This document describes the syntax, semantics and usage of the COBOL programming language as implemented by the current version of GNU COBOL, formerly known as Open-COBOL.
It is intended to serve as a full-function reference and user’s guide suitable for both those readers learning COBOL for the first time as well as those already familiar with some dialect of the COBOL language.
Product Description: Most of the GNU Emacs text editor is written in the programming language called Emacs Lisp. You can write new code in Emacs Lisp and install it as an extension to the editor. However, Emacs Lisp is more than a mere “extension language”; it is a full computer programming language in its own right. You can use it as you would any other programming language.
Because Emacs Lisp is designed for use in an editor, it has special features for scanning and parsing text as well as features for handling files, buffers, displays, subprocesses, and so on. Emacs Lisp is closely integrated with the editing facilities; thus, editing commands are functions that can also conveniently be called from Lisp programs, and parameters for customization are ordinary Lisp variables.
This manual attempts to be a full description of Emacs Lisp. For a beginner’s introduction to Emacs Lisp, see An Introduction to Emacs Lisp Programming, by Bob Chassell, also published by the Free Software Foundation. This manual presumes considerable familiarity with the use of Emacs for editing; see The GNU Emacs Manual for this basic information.
Generally speaking, the earlier chapters describe features of Emacs Lisp that have counterparts in many programming languages, and later chapters describe features that are peculiar to Emacs Lisp or relate specifically to editing.
This is the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, corresponding to Emacs version 24.5.
As Emacs Lisp became such a big project over the years, we had to split this reference manual in two parts that are two separate physical books. To keep it consistent with our digital manual, the references and page numbers cover both physical books as it were one. Therefore please note that you probably want to have both parts.
Octave MATLAB Primer and Applications EZ Guide to Commands and Graphics
Product Description: This book is an expansion of the previous book, GNU Octave Primer for Beginners. This book inherits the first two chapters of the latter but enhanced with additional details and two more chapters, one on numerical methods and another on application of Octave/Matlab to numerous chores and games. The book is applicable to both Octave and Matlab users. Added also are exercise problems and answers showing how to use Octave and Matlab to solve the problems. The source programs in the book are all easily transferable to user's computer by copy/paste from a companion website. Numerical methods introduced in this book are essence of numerical analysis. Although brief and mostly elementary, it also includes numerical solutions of ODE and PDE. The last chapter shows how to apply Octave/Matlab to both business and fun projects, including mortgage payment finder, dice game, Sudoku solution and plotting of fractals. More detail of the book is available at http://octave.ismr.us
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Product Description: The GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a free numerical library for C and C++ programmers. It provides over 1,000 routines for solving mathematical problems in science and engineering. Written by the developers of GSL this reference manual is the definitive guide to the library. The GNU Scientific Library is free software, distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). All the money raised from the sale of this book supports the development of the GNU Scientific Library. This is the third edition of the manual, and corresponds to version 1.12 of the library (updated January 2009).
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