The GNU Project is an attempt to develop
a complete free and open source
operating system, as well as a suite of useful programs, initiated by
Free Software Foundation.
and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) were originally developed for the GNU Project,
although, they are also now used for many other projects too.
The GNU Project includes
the bash shell,
GNU Binary Utilities (binutils),
the GNU C Library (glibc)
the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC),
and the GNU Core Utilities (core).
Additionally, an operating system kernel,
known as GNU Hurd is under development,
but since it is not yet finished,
most GNU users use the programs with
Versions of many of the GNU utilities are
also available for other operating systems including
Mac OS X,
The majority (but not all) the copyrights in the GNU project are held by the
Free Software Foundation,
and as already mentioned, most parts of the project are
distributed under the
licenses, although some other
are used for some parts of the project.
Here are some books about GNU:
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The utility simply known as make is one of the most enduring features of both Unix and other operating systems. First invented in the 1970s, make still turns up to this day as the central engine in most programming projects; it even builds the Linux kernel. In the third edition of the classic Managing Projects with GNU make, readers will learn why this utility continues to hold its top position in project build software, despite many younger competitors.The premise behind make is simple: after you change source files and want to rebuild your program or other output files, make checks timestamps to see what has changed and rebuilds just what you need, without wasting time rebuilding other files. But on top of this simple principle, make layers a rich collection of options that lets you manipulate multiple directories, build different versions of programs for different platforms, and customize your builds in other ways.This edition focuses on the GNU version of make, which has deservedly become the industry standard. GNU make contains powerful extensions that are explored in this book. It is also popular because it is free software and provides a version for almost every platform, including a version for Microsoft Windows as part of the free Cygwin project. Managing Projects with GNU make, 3rd Edition provides guidelines on meeting the needs of large, modern projects. Also added are a number of interesting advanced topics such as portability, parallelism, and use with Java.Robert Mecklenburg, author of the third edition, has used make for decades with a variety of platforms and languages. In this book he zealously lays forth how to get your builds to be as efficient as possible, reduce maintenance, avoid errors, and thoroughly understand what make is doing. Chapters on C++ and Java provide makefile entries optimized for projects in those languages. The author even includes a discussion of the makefile used to build the book.
Product Description: For GNU Make Version 4.1 The Make program is indispensable to maintainers of free software systems. The GNU Make manual, written by the program's original authors, is the definitive tutorial. It also includes an introductory chapter for novice users. The Make utility automates the process of compilation; it is especially useful when the source files of large programs change. It is a small program with a lot of power. This book will show you:
How to write your own makefiles
Make's rule syntax and how to write your own rules
How the Make utility can be configured to automatically put binary and source files in the right places.
How to use make to create archive files automatically
Define, set and use Make's variables
How Make uses targets so that you can broaden or narrow Make's recompilation efforts on demand.
And much more!
This manual provides a complete explanation of Make, both the basics and extended features. There is also a convenient Quick Reference appendix for experts.
Product Description: This is a practical, step-by-step guide that will help you to quickly become a proficient Octave user. The book is packed with clear examples, screenshots, and code to carry out your data analysis without any problems. This book is intended for anyone interested in scientific computing and data analysis. The reader should have a good level of mathematics and a basic understanding of programming will be useful, although it is not a prerequisite
GNU Emacs is the most popular and widespread of the Emacs family of editors. It is also the most powerful and flexible. Unlike all other text editors, GNU Emacs is a complete working environment -- you can stay within Emacs all day without leaving. The GNU Emacs Pocket Reference is a companion volume to O'Reilly's Learning GNU Emacs, which tells you how to get started with the GNU Emacs editor and, as you become more proficient, it will help you learn how to use Emacs more effectively.This small book, covering Emacs version 20, is a handy reference guide to the basic elements of this powerful editor, presenting the Emacs commands in an easy-to-use tabular format.
GNU make is the most widely used build automation tool, but it can be challenging to master and its terse language can be tough to parse for even experienced programmers. Those who run into difficulties face a long, involved struggle, often leaving unsolved problems behind and GNU make's vast potential untapped.
The GNU Make Book demystifies GNU make and shows you how to use its best features. You'll find a fast, thorough rundown of the basics of variables, rules, targets, and makefiles. Learn how to fix wastefully long build times and other common problems, and gain insight into more advanced capabilities, such as complex pattern rules. With this utterly pragmatic manual and cookbook, you'll make rapid progress toward becoming a more effective user.
You'll also learn how to:
Master user-defined functions, variables, and path handling
Weigh the pitfalls and advantages of GNU make parallelization
Handle automatic dependency generation, rebuilding, and non-recursive make
Modify the GNU make source and take advantage of the GNU Make Standard Library
Create makefile assertions and debug makefiles
GNU make is known for being tricky to use, but it doesn't have to be. If you're looking for a deeper understanding of this indispensable tool, you'll find The GNU Make Book to be an indispensable guide.
Product Description: GNU GRUB is a very powerful boot loader, which can load a wide variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading. GRUB is designed to address the complexity of booting a personal computer; both the program and this manual are tightly bound to that computer platform, although porting to other platforms may be addressed in the future.
This manual is the definitive guide to GNU Octave, an interactive environment for numerical computation. GNU Octave provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems using vectors and matrices. This updated edition of the manual covers version 4.2.1 of GNU Octave, and includes documentation for new features such as the new graphical userinterface, sparse matrices, linear programming and computational geometry. GNU Octave is free software, distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
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